Archive for ‘Clerical’

June 5, 2013

A Swarme of Sectaries

…and schismatiques: wherein is discovered the strange preaching (or prating) of such as are by their trades coblers, tinkers, pedlers, weavers, sowgelders, and chymney-sweepers. By John Taylor. The cobler preaches, and his audience are as wise as Mosse was, when he caught his mare. Printed in London in 1642, this is an attack on the mechanic or  independent preachers without livings who had sprung up in the religious turmoil of pre-war London. Nick Poyntz’s blog on this (and other things) is recommended. Click on this link for a more detailed description of the background of this publication

There’s not a lot of detail here, but this is a representative group of independently minded folk gathered at the Nag’s Head in Coleman Street to listen to a preacher in a tub deliver the word. Was he a cobbler or a sowgelder? We will never know though we can see his clothes above the waist. He is wearing a doublet with a day cap on his head and possibly a glimpse of a blue apron around his waist that would mark him as a tradesman rather than a cleric. The rest of the congregation are suitably dressed, women in petticoat, waistcoat and kerchief, one in a coif and another in a hat. The men are in short-tabbed doublets and breeches with hats. Most are wearing cloaks too. It can’t have been all that warm at the Nag’s Head!

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May 17, 2013

A Seasonable Lecture

or, A most learned oration disburthened from Henry VValker, a most judicious … iron monger : a late pamphleteere and now, too late or too soone, a double diligent preacher : as it might be delivered in Hatcham barne the thirtieth day of March last. Taken in short writing by Thorny Ailo ; and now printed in words at length and not in figures. Printed in London 1642.

Henry Walker started as an ironmonger in London and gradually moved into writing and selling books from the City. He was also known as a charismatic, though not necessarily learned preacher. Interesting to note that this lecture was taken down in shorthand and then translated into print for publication. Some of the most popular sermons were reprinted in the 1640s particularly, though it was a required skill to pay attention and remember the sermon you had attended, every much as it was for the sermon giver to deliver from memory.

In the top image from the pamphlet we see a group of respectable citizens paying close attention to Henry in his tub. Henry wears a preaching gown and falling band, whilst his flock are tidily dressed in doublet, breeches and fine linen. The ladies in petticoat, apron and kerchief. All apart from the preacher are wearing hats, though it was thought that it was best by those of an independant persuasion to uncover to hear the word delivered.  In the lower pane two gents are seen abroad in cloaks and carrying staffs. Perhaps they are pilgrims, or maybe a scene from the parable of Tobias and Gabriel he relates in the sermon.

If you want to learn more about Henry Walker, the best place to look in is Nick Poyntz’s blog Mercurius Politicus.

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April 24, 2013

The Humble Petition of Jock of Bread

Satyrical tract from 1648. Jock presents his petition to call for closer union between England and Scotland. Jock in the centre has removed his hat to honour the sergeant who is taking the deposition. He, and the cloaked guys on the left are wearing short tabbed doublets, a nice pair of breeches with ribbon decoration and high heeled shoes.The sergeant (you can tell by his halberd) has a longer tabbed doublet, breeches, boots, a waist-tied scarf and a baldric holding up his sword. He is also leaning on a walking cane which would make it tricky to wield his halberd effectively, though it does imbue him with a certain air of disdain! I’ve now found an earlier version of this image on the front page of The Catholicke’s Petition to Prince Rupert  from 1644. It doesn’t look original to that publication either.

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April 11, 2013

The Teares of Ireland part 3

Still James Cranford 1642. These poor souls are being dragged through the streets by their hair, but luckily for us the engraver shows us their petticoats and the rear view of a waistcoat and kerchief. The ruffians are still in doublet and breeches with wide hats and feathers.

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This Irish soldier has taken off his back and breastplate and removed his headgear before the priest bestows a blessing on him. Presumably they thought he was about god’s work bashing out small children’s brains? If in fact if happened at all that is. Doublet, breeches and shoes here, though the details are scant.

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The woman running away in distress here has her waistcoat open to show her petticoat, possibly attached to a section of upper bodies, though it’s tricky to see. It may just be her smock. Loose flowing hair indicates distress in this case. As do the raised arms of course.

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Poor Mrs Fforde is being badly treated here, but notice the short sleeves of her waistcoat, the coif and her smartly pressed kerchief.

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April 9, 2013

The Teares of Ireland

wherein is lively presented as in a map a list of the unheard off cruelties and perfidious treacheries of blood-thirsty Jesuits and the popish faction : as a warning piece to her sister nations to prevent the like miseries, as are now acted on the stage of this fresh bleeding nation / reported by gentlemen of good credit living there, but forced to flie for their lives… illustrated by pictures ; fit to be reserved by all true Protestants as a monument of their perpetuall reproach and ignominy, and to animate the spirits of Protestants against such bloody villains. Written by James Cranford and published in 1642. This is as you may imagine a lurid tale of atrocities in Ireland during the rebellion of 1641. There are 12 plates throughout the book, uncredited, though the British Museum attributes them to Wenceslaus Hollar. First picture (© The Trustees of the British Museum) is a kind of picture book compendium of all the pictures.

Teares of Ireland



Here a more detailed look at the first two images. Owen Macke-onell according to the text was a servant who overheard the plans by Irish Catholic gentry to effect a coup and take over the government of Ireland. He is shown in the first picture, presumably in his servant’s livery doublet, breeches, falling band and shoes being menaced by some soldiers smartly dressed in doublets and boots.

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The second pane is a bit more lurid. One scene of rape and torture enacted by an Irishman in doublet and breeches and the second image, a crowd of protestants stripped and chased off into the hills by a similarly dressed mob of “papists”.



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April 1, 2013

James Naylor

Engraving from 1656 by an unknown engraver, James Naylor was a bit player in the Civil Wars, during which he fought as a foot soldier and later in Lambert’s Cavalry in the New Model Army, but came to prominence in the years after.  He developed into a charismatic and eloquent preacher of the fledgling Quaker movement. In fact so good was he that the authorities became very worried about the following he was attracting and  eventually he was tried for blasphemy by Parliament. This was nothing short of a show trial and Naylor narrowly escaped a death sentence, being finally sentenced to be whipped through the streets and tortured by the public hangman. The engraving shows what happened to him. In the first pane he is being whipped at a cart’s tail in a pair of ragged breeches and his shirt hangs in rags. The hangman wears a short tabbed doublet,  unconfined breeches and a tall hat. In the second, Naylor and the executioner both wear coats. The breeches on the executioner have some kind of ribbon decoration just above the knee, perhaps a badge of his office? Picture © National Portrait Gallery, London

NPG D29209; James Nayler after Unknown artist

The second engraving shows Naylor as a broken man after his sentence was passed. He hadn’t been in the best of health anyway, but after this and an episode when he was robbed and beaten on his way to Yorkshire he died in 1660. He is wearing a doublet under his preaching gown and a small linen collar. The letter B for blasphemer branded on his forehead was also part of his punishment in 1656. This plate was engraved for Ephraim Pagett’s Heresiography, the new specially illustrated edition of 1662. Image © The Trustees of the British Museum

James Naylor

March 30, 2013

Richard Baxter

Engraved in 1652 by an unknown artist at age 35, the independent cleric Richard Baxter had taken part in the war as Edmund Whalley’s regimental chaplain for a while until ill health forced him to step down. Baxter wears a segmented daycap with lace or cutwork edging, a doublet and off the shoulder cloak. He also has a plain band with decorative bandstrings and matching cuffs. Picture © Trustees of the British Museum

Richard Baxter

March 30, 2013

Richard Bernard

Engraved by Hollar on the front of his book Thesaurus Biblicus, a concordance of the Bible, published after he had died in 1644. Bernard was a moderate Church of England priest. Although in early life he had rejected the surplice, he returned to the church and wrote many books in support of the establishment. Bernard is wearing a clerical gown over a cassock, a small standing collar and a black day cap. Picture © Trustees of the British Museum

Richard Bernard

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March 18, 2013

Eikon Alethine

Eikon alethine. The pourtraiture of truths most sacred majesty truly suffering, though not solely. Wherein the false colours are washed off, wherewith the painter-steiner had bedawbed truth, the late King and the Parliament, in his counterfeit piece entituled Eikon basilike. Published to uudeceive the world. London 1649

Published shortly after Eikon Basilike to try and debunk the idea that the King had written Eikon Basilike. John Milton had also written a book on the same subject, Eikonoklastes, though sadly in his publication there were no pictures. Here a hand pulls back a curtain to reveal the cleric  who was thought of have ghost-written the Eikon, identified in the book with the roman politician Catiline who tried to overthrow the Roman republic, though now thought to be the Bishop of Worcester John Gauden. He is clad in standard Church of England garb in square Canterbury cap, preaching gown with a hanging sleeve visible and a small collar band. The arm has a nicely darted linen cuff. Image © Trustees of the British Museum

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February 25, 2013

Robert Dingley

Pictured on the front page of his tome The Spiritual Taste Described and a Glimpse of Christ Discovered, published in 1649 and engraved by Thomas Cross.  Dingley wears a black doublet with a collared cloak, small falling band and black day cap. Note the buttons on the collar and all the way down the front for fastening the cloak for inclement weather, though for the picture, Robert wears it in the off the shoulder manner of religious portraits of the time. Presumably the garment is held on by some kind of strap that fixes around the arms. Although it looks like a coat and it has neck shaping, I believe the wide flap collar at the back marks it as a cloak. Coats at this time generally had no collar or a short stiffened band.